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Fighting infections with infections
Multi-drug-resistant bacterial infections are becoming more of an issue, with 1.2 million people dying of previously treatable bacterial infections. Scientists are frantically searching for new metho…
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A tale of two colleges
COVID-19 at the University of Wisconsin this fall has been pretty much a non-issue. While we are wearing masks, full in-person teaching is happening on campus. Bars, restaurants, and all other busine…
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Get your Vitamin D to Protect Yourself from COVID-19
This sounds like another hydroxychloroquine or ivermectin hoax, but the science is peer-reviewed. Getting enough vitamin D in your diet is an excellent way to protect yourself from severe COVID-19. E…
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About 35,000 people die from drug-resistant infection in the US. What are we going to do?
When antibiotics first achieved widescale use in the middle of the 20th century, they had a tremendous impact. For example, the mortality rate in England from infectious disease dropped from 25% in 1…
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Nasal nanoSTING vaccines may Provide Lasting Protection Against SARS-CoV-2
All successful vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have used the spike protein as the target and delivered the vaccine by intramuscular injection, typically a shot in the left or right shoulder. The vaccines…
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Huge positive news on the effort to create a coronavirus vaccine


Pfizer has announced early data in its vaccine trial that indicates an efficacy of 90%! The news could not be better. While the article claims this is early data if you dig down into the details they indicate how many subjects were infected with coronavirus during the study. When the analysis was done, 94 people had been infected. To complete the trial, scientists decided that 164 need to be infected. We are already halfway there. This is the last piece of the puzzle and means we will have an effective vaccine. One caveat is that the Pfizer vaccine is an RNA vaccine. While this makes it easy to manufacture, the vaccine needs to be stored at very low temperatures. Thus transport of the vaccine for distribution will be an issue.

Several other vaccines are in the pipeline and I expect their results to be just as good. Hurray for science.