Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine demonstrate the power of probiotics. A test group was given Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 as they took a course of amoxicillin clavulanate (a very common antibiotic treatment). They then measure the level of short-chain fatty acids produced in the gut of these volunteers (a marker of microbiome activity). Giving the test group BB12 resulted in a smaller drop of SFA production and a return back to normal SFA production once the antibiotic course was done. The control group was also fed yogurt once a day, but it did not contain BB12. In the control group, SFA production dropped more and never returned to previous levels. It appears BB12 is helpful for maintaining the microbiome during antibiotic treatment. Limiting the effects of antibiotics can be important to prevent general diarrhea and infection with Clostridium difficile that can create life-threatening illness.