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About 35,000 people die from drug-resistant infection in the US. What are we going to do?
When antibiotics first achieved widescale use in the middle of the 20th century, they had a tremendous impact. For example, the mortality rate in England from infectious disease dropped from 25% in 1…
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Nasal nanoSTING vaccines may Provide Lasting Protection Against SARS-CoV-2
All successful vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have used the spike protein as the target and delivered the vaccine by intramuscular injection, typically a shot in the left or right shoulder. The vaccines…
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Probiotic Bacterium can prevent antibiotic use side effects
Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine demonstrate the power of probiotics. A test group was given Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 as they took a course of amoxicillin clavula…
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The CDC publishes another study that shows the protection that vaccination provides against COVID-19
The CDC is out with another recent study comparing the incidence rate of COVID-19 in unvaccinated vs. vaccinated individuals. It is mostly good news. The vaccine protects against infection, hospitali…
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No, that is NOT what the study says -- Immunity to COVID
I am getting tired of the scare tactics that news and media sources are using to get you to click on headlines. Headlines in some press releases drive me bananas: New study: Nursing home residents,…
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COVID-19 - What happens after herd immunity?


Health experts have been encouraging everyone who can get the COVID-19 vaccine to get it. They want to reach a threshold called herd immunity. What does that mean? Herd immunity occurs when a large enough percentage of the population is vaccinated (and thus immune to a disease) that the illness can no longer spread through the community. The exact fraction that needs to be vaccinated to achieve herd immunity is different for every disease. Scientists estimate for COVID-19 it will be larger than 60%. Dane County in Wisconsin has vaccinated just about 70% of residents and has seen numbers of infection drop significantly. We are only observing about 5 to 10 cases a day and 55% of these are coming from outside the Madison area. UW-Madison has had spectacular success at vaccinating its population, achieving a vaccination rate of over 85%. From June 13th until July 1st there were no cases of COVID-19 in the UW-Madison community. COVID-19 can be controlled and likely eradicated, if we are willing to get the dang shot.